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During the autumn of , the Central Powers began to collapse. Following negotiations, the Allied powers and Germany signed an armistice , which came into effect on 11 November while German forces were still positioned in France and Belgium.
The terms of the armistice called for an immediate evacuation of German troops from occupied Belgium , France , and Luxembourg within fifteen days.
In late , Allied troops entered Germany and began the occupation. Both the German Empire and Great Britain were dependent on imports of food and raw materials, primarily from the Americas , which had to be shipped across the Atlantic Ocean.
The Blockade of Germany — was a naval operation conducted by the Allied Powers to stop the supply of raw materials and foodstuffs reaching the Central Powers.
The German Kaiserliche Marine was mainly restricted to the German Bight and used commerce raiders and unrestricted submarine warfare for a counter-blockade.
The German Board of Public Health in December stated that , German civilians had died during the Allied blockade, although an academic study in put the death toll at , people.
In late , a Polish government was formed and an independent Poland proclaimed. In December, Poles launched an uprising within the Prussian province of Posen.
Fighting lasted until February, when an armistice was signed that left the province in Polish hands, but technically still a German possession.
Furthermore, German negotiators were excluded to deny them an opportunity to divide the Allies diplomatically. Initially, a "Council of Ten" comprising two delegates each from Britain, France, the United States, Italy, and Japan met officially to decide the peace terms.
This council was replaced by the "Council of Five", formed from each countries foreign ministers, to discuss minor matters. These four men met in closed sessions to make all the major decisions, which were later ratified by the entire assembly.
The minor powers attended a weekly "Plenary Conference" that discussed issues in a general forum but made no decisions.
These members formed over 50 commissions that made various recommendations, many of which were incorporated into the final text of the treaty.
France had lost 1. France had also been more physically damaged than any other nation the so-called zone rouge Red Zone ; the most industrialized region and the source of most coal and iron ore in the north-east had been devastated and in the final days of the war mines had been flooded and railways, bridges and factories destroyed.
Not even Napoleon himself could touch England. You are both sheltered; we are not". Clemenceau had told the Chamber of Deputies , in December , that his goal was to maintain an alliance with both countries.
Clemenceau accepted the offer, in return for an occupation of the Rhineland for fifteen years and that Germany would also demilitarise the Rhineland.
French negotiators required reparations, to make Germany pay for the destruction induced throughout the war and to decrease German strength.
In April and May , the French and Germans held separate talks, on mutually acceptable arrangements on issues like reparation, reconstruction and industrial collaboration.
Britain had suffered little land devastation during the war. In private Lloyd George opposed revenge and attempted to compromise between Clemenceau's demands and the Fourteen Points, because Europe would eventually have to reconcile with Germany.
Lloyd George also intended to maintain a European balance of power to thwart a French attempt to establish itself as the dominant European Power.
Lloyd George also wanted to neutralize the German navy to keep the Royal Navy as the greatest naval power in the world; dismantle the German colonial empire with several of its territorial possessions ceded to Britain and others being established as League of Nations mandates , a position opposed by the Dominions.
Prior to the American entry into the war, Wilson had talked of a 'peace without victory'. This position fluctuated following the US entry into the war.
Wilson talked of the German aggressors who there could be no compromised peace with. Wilson brought along top intellectuals as advisors to the American peace delegation, and the overall American position echoed the Fourteen Points.
Wilson firmly opposed harsh treatment on Germany. The promoted idea called for the major powers to act as disinterested trustees over a region, aiding the native populations until they could govern themselves.
In November , the Republican Party won the Senate election by a slim margin. Wilson, a Democrat , refused to include prominent Republicans in the American delegation making his efforts seem partisan, and contributed to a risk of political defeat at home.
In June , the Allies declared that war would resume if the German government did not sign the treaty they had agreed to among themselves.
The government headed by Philipp Scheidemann was unable to agree on a common position, and Scheidemann himself resigned rather than agree to sign the treaty.
Gustav Bauer , the head of the new government, sent a telegram stating his intention to sign the treaty if certain articles were withdrawn, including Articles , and On 23 June, Bauer capitulated and sent a second telegram with a confirmation that a German delegation would arrive shortly to sign the treaty.
It also required Germany to give up the gains made via the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and grant independence to the protectorates that had been established.
Within six months of the transfer, Belgium was required to conduct a plebiscite on whether the citizens of the region wanted to remain under Belgian sovereignty or return to German control, communicate the results to the League of Nations and abide by the League's decision.
In Central Europe Germany was to recognize the independence of Czechoslovakia and cede parts of the province of Upper Silesia. Portions of Upper Silesia were to be ceded to Poland, with the future of the rest of the province to be decided by plebiscite.
The border would be fixed with regard to the vote and to the geographical and economic conditions of each locality. Article of the treaty required Germany to renounce sovereignty over former colonies and Article 22 converted the territories into League of Nations mandates under the control of Allied states.
Japan was granted all German possessions in the Pacific north of the equator and those south of the equator went to Australia, except for German Samoa , which was taken by New Zealand.
The treaty was comprehensive and complex in the restrictions imposed upon the post-war German armed forces the Reichswehr.
The provisions were intended to make the Reichswehr incapable of offensive action and to encourage international disarmament.
The treaty laid down the organisation of the divisions and support units, and the General Staff was to be dissolved.
Private soldiers and non-commissioned officers were to be retained for at least twelve years and officers for a minimum of 25 years, with former officers being forbidden to attend military exercises.
To prevent Germany from building up a large cadre of trained men, the number of men allowed to leave early was limited. The number of civilian staff supporting the army was reduced and the police force was reduced to its pre-war size, with increases limited to population increases; paramilitary forces were forbidden.
The number of officers and warrant officers was not allowed to exceed 1, men. Thirty-two auxiliary ships were to be disarmed and converted to merchant use.
In conjunction, Germany was forbidden to manufacture or import aircraft or related material for a period of six months following the signing of the treaty.
In Article Germany accepted responsibility for the losses and damages caused by the war "as a consequence of the The commission was required to "give to the German Government a just opportunity to be heard", and to submit its conclusions by 1 May The money would help to pay for Allied occupation costs and buy food and raw materials for Germany.
To ensure compliance, the Rhineland and bridgeheads east of the Rhine were to be occupied by Allied troops for fifteen years. After ten years, the bridgehead at Coblenz and the territories to the north would be evacuated and after fifteen years remaining Allied forces would be withdrawn.
Part I of the treaty, as per all the treaties signed during the Paris Peace Conference, [nb 3] was the Covenant of the League of Nations , which provided for the creation of the League, an organization for the arbitration of international disputes.
The delegates of the Commonwealth and British Government had mixed thoughts on the treaty, with some seeing the French policy as being greedy and vindictive.
What has become of Wilson's 14 points? Lord Robert Cecil said that many within the Foreign Office were disappointed by the treaty.
Bernadotte Schmitt wrote that the "average Englishman The surrendering of the German High Seas Fleet following the armistice, its internment, and eventual scuttling at Scapa Flow meant that Britain's primary war goal was achieved prior to the signing of the treaty.
By the s, Lloyd George's position on the treaty has changed. In , he published his memoir titled The Truth About the Peace Treaties , in which he repudiated the terms of the treaty that bore his signature.
The signing of the treaty was met with roars of approval, singing, and dancing from a crowd outside the Palace of Versailles.
In Paris proper, people rejoiced at the official end of the war,  the return of Alsace and Lorraine to France, and that Germany had agreed to pay reparations.
While France ratified the treaty and was active in the League, the jubilant mood soon gave way to a political backlash for Clemenceau.
The French Right saw the treaty as being too lenient and saw it as failing to achieve all of France's demands.
Left -wing politicians attacked the treaty and Clemenceau for being too harsh the latter turning into a ritual condemnation of the treaty, for politicians remarking on French foreign affairs, as late as August Marshal Ferdinand Foch stated "this treaty is not peace.
It is an armistice for twenty years. Reaction in Italy to the treaty was extremely negative. The country had suffered high casualties, yet failed to achieve most of its major war goals, notably gaining control of the Dalmatian coast and Fiume.
President Wilson rejected Italy's claims on the basis of "national self-determination. Differences in negotiating strategy between Premier Vittorio Orlando and Foreign Minister Sidney Sonnino further undermined Italy's position at the conference.
A furious Vittorio Orlando suffered a nervous collapse and at one point walked out of the conference though he later returned.
He lost his position as prime minister just a week before the treaty was scheduled to be signed, effectively ending his active political career.
Anger and dismay over the treaty's provisions helped pave the way for the establishment of Benito Mussolini's dictatorship three years later.
Portugal entered the war on the Allied side in primarily to ensure the security of its African colonies , which were threatened with seizure by both Britain and Germany.
To this extent, she succeeded in her war aims. The treaty recognized Portuguese sovereignty over these areas and awarded her small portions of Germany's bordering overseas colonies.
Otherwise, Portugal gained little at the peace conference. Her promised share of German reparations never materialized, and a seat she coveted on the executive council of the new League of Nations went instead to Spain—which had remained neutral in the war.
In the end, Portugal ratified the treaty, but got little out of the war, which cost more than 8, Portuguese troops and as many as , of her African colonial subjects their lives.
After the Versailles conference, Democratic President Woodrow Wilson claimed that "at last the world knows America as the savior of the world!
It proved possible to build a majority coalition, but impossible to build a two-thirds coalition that was needed to pass a treaty. A discontent bloc of 12—18 " Irreconcilables ", mostly Republicans but also representatives of the Irish and German Democrats, fiercely opposed the treaty.
One block of Democrats strongly supported the Versailles Treaty, even with reservations added by Lodge. A second group of Democrats supported the treaty but followed Wilson in opposing any amendments or reservations.
The largest bloc, led by Senator Lodge,  comprised a majority of the Republicans. They wanted a treaty with reservations, especially on Article 10, which involved the power of the League of Nations to make war without a vote by the US Congress.
However, Wilson collapsed midway with a serious stroke that effectively ruined his leadership skills. The closest the treaty came to passage was on 19 November , as Lodge and his Republicans formed a coalition with the pro-Treaty Democrats, and were close to a two-thirds majority for a Treaty with reservations, but Wilson rejected this compromise and enough Democrats followed his lead to permanently end the chances for ratification.
Among the American public as a whole, the Irish Catholics and the German Americans were intensely opposed to the treaty, saying it favored the British.
Harding continued American opposition to the formation of the League of Nations. Congress subsequently passed the Knox—Porter Resolution bringing a formal end to hostilities between the United States and the Central Powers.
It was signed into law by President Harding on 2 July Wilson's former friend Edward Mandell House , present at the negotiations, wrote in his diary on 29 June I am leaving Paris, after eight fateful months, with conflicting emotions.
Looking at the conference in retrospect, there is much to approve and yet much to regret. It is easy to say what should have been done, but more difficult to have found a way of doing it.
To those who are saying that the treaty is bad and should never have been made and that it will involve Europe in infinite difficulties in its enforcement, I feel like admitting it.
But I would also say in reply that empires cannot be shattered, and new states raised upon their ruins without disturbance. To create new boundaries is to create new troubles.
The one follows the other. While I should have preferred a different peace, I doubt very much whether it could have been made, for the ingredients required for such a peace as I would have were lacking at Paris.
Many in China felt betrayed as the German territory in China was handed to Japan. Wellington Koo refused to sign the treaty and the Chinese delegation at the Paris Peace Conference was the only nation that did not sign the Treaty of Versailles at the signing ceremony.
The sense of betrayal led to great demonstrations in China like the May 4th movement and the fall of the nascent Chinese Republic's government [ when?
You demand from us to confess we were the only guilty party of war; such a confession in my mouth would be a lie.
Germans of all political shades denounced the treaty—particularly the provision that blamed Germany for starting the war—as an insult to the nation's honor.
They referred to the treaty as "the Diktat " since its terms were presented to Germany on a take-it-or-leave-it basis.
In a passionate speech before the National Assembly on 21 March , he called the treaty a "murderous plan" and exclaimed,. Which hand, trying to put us in chains like these, would not wither?
The treaty is unacceptable. President Friedrich Ebert knew that Germany was in an impossible situation. Although he shared his countrymen's disgust with the treaty, he was sober enough to consider the possibility that the government would not be in a position to reject it.
He believed that if Germany refused to sign the treaty, the Allies would invade Germany from the west—and there was no guarantee that the army would be able to make a stand in the event of an invasion.
With this in mind, he asked Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg if the army was capable of any meaningful resistance in the event the Allies resumed the war.
If there was even the slightest chance that the army could hold out, Ebert intended to recommend against ratifying the treaty.
Hindenburg—after prodding from his chief of staff, Wilhelm Groener —concluded the army could not resume the war even on a limited scale.
However, rather than inform Ebert himself, he had Groener inform the government that the army would be in an untenable position in the event of renewed hostilities.
Upon receiving this, the new government recommended signing the treaty. The National Assembly voted in favour of signing the treaty by to , with five abstentions there were delegates in total.
This result was wired to Clemenceau just hours before the deadline. Foreign minister Hermann Müller and colonial minister Johannes Bell travelled to Versailles to sign the treaty on behalf of Germany.
The treaty was signed on 28 June and ratified by the National Assembly on 9 July by a vote of to Conservatives, nationalists and ex-military leaders condemned the treaty.
Politicians of the Weimar Republic who supported the treaty, socialists, communists , and Jews were viewed with suspicion as persons of questionable loyalty.
Those who seemed to benefit from a weakened Germany and the newly formed Weimar Republic were regarded as having "stabbed Germany in the back".
Those who instigated unrest and strikes in the critical military industries on the home front or who opposed German nationalism were seen to have contributed to Germany's defeat.
In the West, Germany had seemed to have come close to winning the war with the Spring Offensive earlier in The strikes were regarded by nationalists as having been instigated by traitors, with the Jews taking most of the blame.
On 5 May , the reparation Commission established the London Schedule of Payments and a final reparation sum of billion gold marks to be demanded of all the Central Powers.
This was the public assessment of what the Central Powers combined could pay, and was also a compromise between Belgian, British, and French demands and assessments.
Furthermore, the Commission recognized that the Central Powers could pay little and that the burden would fall upon Germany. Furthermore, payments made between and were taken into account reducing the sum to 41 billion gold marks.
In order to meet this sum, Germany could pay in case or kind: Germany's assistance with the restoration of the university library of Louvain , which was destroyed by the Germans on 25 August , was also credited towards the sum.
Territorial changes imposed by the treaty were also factored in. The German Government was to issue bonds at five per cent interest and set up a sinking fund of one per cent to support the payment of reparations.
In February and March , the Schleswig Plebiscites were held. The people of Schleswig were presented with only two choices: Danish or German sovereignty.
The northern Danish-speaking area voted for Denmark while the southern German-speaking area voted for Germany, resulting in the province being partitioned.
Further plebiscites were held in Eupen, Malmedy, and Prussian Moresnet. On 20 September , the League of Nations allotted these territories to Belgium.
These latter plebiscites were followed by a boundary commission in , followed by the new Belgian-German border being recognized by the German Government on 15 December Following the implementation of the treaty, Upper Silesia was initially governed by Britain, France, and Italy.
The plebiscite resulted in c. Oppeln , in the north-west, remained with Germany while Silesia Province , in the south-east, was transferred to Poland.
Memel remained under the authority of the League of Nations, with a French military garrison, until January The League of Nations mediated between the Germans and Lithuanians on a local level, helping the power-sharing arrangement last until The Mason Bogie is a type of articulated steam locomotive suited for sharp curves and uneven track, once commonly used on narrow gauge lines in the United States.
The advantage of Mason's design is the swivelling driven truck for a greater ability to negotiate curves, and the large open space between the trucks to fit a large firebox unrestricted by the wheels.
It is one of the largest steam locomotives ever used in Sweden. The superheated compound engine could produce 1, kilowatts 1, hp.
During the s the locomotives became obsolete due to electrification of the main lines, and were sold to DSB of Denmark, where they served as DSB Class E into the s.
The Class V was one of the first diesel-hydraulic express locomotives of the German Deutsche Bundesbahn.
Full production began in , with 61 engines being built. The DB Class is a class of 4 axle, diesel hydraulic locomotives acquired by the Deutsche Bundesbahn for use on main and secondary lines for both passenger and freight trains.
This class was the most numerous of the V family, providing the backbone of the Deutsche Bundesbahn's main-line diesel locomotive traction from the s up to the reunification of Germany.
Despite being displaced from many workings by DMUs by electrification, and inherited DR Class s, as of a significant number of the class still remain active throughout Germany.
The power rating of the PL42AC locomotives is about hp total for tractive effort and head-end power. At the time of delivery this locomotive was considered the most advanced passenger diesel locomotive in the United States.
It has an Intelligent Display Unit IDU based on Bombardier Transportation technology from which an engineer or technician can run tests to determine if a specific system is operating correctly.
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The Siemens Desiro is a family of diesel or electric multiple unit passenger trains developed by Siemens Mobility, a division of the German Siemens AG conglomerate.
These are based on the Class used by Deutsche Bahn, but have some additional safety equipment. They are to be built by Hitachi from The Class units will be electro-diesel multiple units, able to draw power from electrified overhead lines where available and power themselves via underfloor diesel generators outside of the electrified network.
Maglev is a system of transportation that uses magnetic levitation to suspend, guide and propel vehicles rather than using mechanical methods.
Maglev transport is a means of flying a vehicle or object along a guideway by using magnets to create both lift and thrust, only a few inches above the guideway surface.
The non-reliance on friction means that acceleration and deceleration can far surpass that of existing forms of transport. The power needed for levitation is not a particularly large percentage of the overall energy consumption, most of the power used is needed to overcome air resistance, as with any other high-speed form of transport.
Mason Bogie The Mason Bogie is a type of articulated steam locomotive suited for sharp curves and uneven track, once commonly used on narrow gauge lines in the United States.
DB Class The DB Class is a class of 4 axle, diesel hydraulic locomotives acquired by the Deutsche Bundesbahn for use on main and secondary lines for both passenger and freight trains.
Momentum Maglev is a system of transportation that uses magnetic levitation to suspend, guide and propel vehicles rather than using mechanical methods.
Spark Maglev is a system of transportation that uses magnetic levitation to suspend, guide and propel vehicles rather than using mechanical methods.
Dies Maglev is a system of transportation that uses magnetic levitation to suspend, guide and propel vehicles rather than using mechanical methods.